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### Chapter 9 Review Exercises

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• 1. Describing Variables in a Bubble Graph about Religiosity

The graph shows the data from a Gallup survey relating religiosity to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. GDP is the market value of the goods and services produced by a country over a certain time period, usually by year. It is often used as a comparative statistic to gauge a country's standard of living. Describe the variables displayed in the graph.

• Worked-Out Solution

Here are the variables.

• Each bubble represents a country.

• The vertical axis measures the percent of the population who say that religion is an important part of their daily lives.

The higher the bubble, the greater the number of people who say that religion is an important part of their daily lives.

• The horizontal axis measures the GDP per capita. The farther to the right, the greater the GDP per capita.

• The area of the bubble measures the population size. The bigger the bubble, the larger the population.

• The color of the bubble represents the dominant religion in the country.

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```  _____     ______    _____    __   __   _    _
/  ___||  /_   _//  |__  //   \ \\/ // | || | ||
| // __     -| ||-     / //     \ ` //  | || | ||
| \\_\ ||   _| ||_    / //__     | ||   | \\_/ ||
\____//   /_____//  /_____||    |_||    \____//
`---`    `-----`   `-----`     `-`'     `---`

```
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• 2. Describing Religiosity and GDP per Capita by Country

The graph shows the data from a Gallup survey relating religiosity to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. GDP is the market value of the goods and services produced by a country over a certain time period, usually by year. It is often used as a comparative statistic to gauge a country's standard of living. Describe the information presented in the graph.

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``` __   _    __   __   ______    __   __   _____
| || | ||  \ \\/ // |      \\  \ \\/ // |  __ \\
| '--' ||   \ ` //  |  --  //   \ ` //  | |  \ ||
| .--. ||    | ||   |  --  \\    | ||   | |__/ ||
|_|| |_||    |_||   |______//    |_||   |_____//
`-`  `-`     `-`'   `------`     `-`'    -----`

```
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• 3. Country with the Highest GDP per Capita

The graph shows the data from a Gallup survey relating religiosity to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. GDP is the market value of the goods and services produced by a country over a certain time period, usually by year. It is often used as a comparative statistic to gauge a country's standard of living. Which country has the highest GDP per capita?

• Worked-Out Solution

The United States has the highest GDP per capita because its bubble is the farthest to the right.

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```  ____      _____     _____    __   __  __    __
|  _ \\   |  ___||  |__  //   \ \\/ // \ \\ / //
| |_| ||  | ||__      / //     \ ` //   \ \/ //
| .  //   | ||__     / //__     | ||     \  //
|_|\_\\   |_____||  /_____||    |_||      \//
`-` --`   `-----`   `-----`     `-`'       `

```
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• 4. Religiosity in France

The graph shows the data from a Gallup survey relating religiosity to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. GDP is the market value of the goods and services produced by a country over a certain time period, usually by year. It is often used as a comparative statistic to gauge a country's standard of living. What is the dominant religion in France?

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``` _____     _    _     ______     ___     _    _
|  __ \\  | || | ||  /_____//   / _ \\  | || | ||
| |  \ || | || | ||  `____ `   / //\ \\ | || | ||
| |__/ || | \\_/ ||  /___//   |  ___  ||| \\_/ ||
|_____//   \____//   `__ `    |_||  |_|| \____//
-----`     `---`    /_//     `-`   `-`   `---`
`-`
```
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• 5. Country with the Highest GDP per Capita

The graph shows the data from a Gallup survey relating religiosity to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. GDP is the market value of the goods and services produced by a country over a certain time period, usually by year. It is often used as a comparative statistic to gauge a country's standard of living. Does the graph support the comment below? Explain your reasoning.

• Worked-Out Solution

Sample answer:

There appears to be a correlation between religiosity and poverty. The majority of the countries with a low GDP per capita have a high percent of the population who say that religion is an important part of their daily lives. The majority of the countries with a high GDP per capita have a low percent of the population who say that religion is an important part of their daily lives.

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```  _____      ___      _  _      ___       _____
/ ____||   / _ \\   | \| ||   / _ \\    / ___//
/ //---`'  | / \ ||  |  ' ||  | / \ ||   \___ \\
\ \\___    | \_/ ||  | .  ||  | \_/ ||   /    //
\_____||   \___//   |_|\_||   \___//   /____//
`----`    `---`    `-` -`    `---`   `-----`

```
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• 6. Comparing Religiosity in Russia and Argentina

The graph shows the data from a Gallup survey relating religiosity to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. GDP is the market value of the goods and services produced by a country over a certain time period, usually by year. It is often used as a comparative statistic to gauge a country's standard of living. Are there more religious people in Argentina or Russia? Explain your reasoning.

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```  ______   _    _     ____     __   __   _    _
/_   _// | || | ||  |  _ \\   \ \\/ // | \  / ||
`-| |,-  | || | ||  | |_| ||   \ ` //  |  \/  ||
| ||   | \\_/ ||  | .  //     | ||   | .  . ||
|_||    \____//   |_|\_\\     |_||   |_|\/|_||
`-`'     `---`    `-` --`     `-`'   `-`  `-`

```
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• 7. Comparing Countries with High GDPs per Capita

The graph shows the data from a Gallup survey relating religiosity to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. GDP is the market value of the goods and services produced by a country over a certain time period, usually by year. It is often used as a comparative statistic to gauge a country's standard of living. Compare the religiosity of the United States with that of other countries with high GDPs per capita.

• Worked-Out Solution

The United States is one of the few countries with a high GDP per capita and a high percent of people who say that religion is an important part of their daily lives. The majority of the countries with a high GDP per capita have a low percent (less than 50%) of the population who say that they are religious. In this sense, the United States is an outlier.

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```  _  _     ______   ______      ___      ______
| \| ||  /_   _// |      \\   / _ \\   /_   _//
|  ' ||   -| ||-  |  --  //  | / \ ||  `-| |,-
| .  ||   _| ||_  |  --  \\  | \_/ ||    | ||
|_|\_||  /_____// |______//   \___//     |_||
`-` -`   `-----`  `------`    `---`      `-`'

```
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• 8. Using a Stacked Area Graph to Present Information

The graph shows the data from a Gallup survey relating religiosity to gross domestic product (GDP) per capita. GDP is the market value of the goods and services produced by a country over a certain time period, usually by year. It is often used as a comparative statistic to gauge a country's standard of living. Could you use a stacked area graph to show the information presented in this graph? Explain your reasoning.

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```  ______     ___      _  __    ______    _____
/_____//   / _ \\   | |/ //  /_   _//  /  ___||
`____ `   / //\ \\  | ' //    -| ||-  | // __
/___//   |  ___  || | . \\    _| ||_  | \\_\ ||
`__ `    |_||  |_|| |_|\_\\  /_____//  \____//
/_//     `-`   `-`  `-` --`  `-----`    `---`
`-`
```
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