### 3.4 Fallacies in Logic

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• Math Help

The fallacy of  "non sequitur" or "false cause" is common.

 • Premise: P implies Q. Government funding for police, schools, and roads is necessary. • Premise: P implies R. Government funding for police, schools, and roads comes from taxes. • Conclusion: R implies Q. Therefore, taxes are necessary.

Do you see why this type of fallacy is called "It does not follow"?

The point of Example 3 is that a set diagram can help when trying to analyze a syllogism.

Oddly enough, when you believe that a syllogism has reached a valid conclusion, it is tempting to not think as clearly. When you are analyzing a syllogism, try to divorce yourself from whether the conclusion is true or false.

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• Checkpoint Solution

Here is the original statement.

Our society is filled with violence, and there is a lot of violence on TV. It follows that the violence in society is caused by people watching TV.

Here is a possible set diagram for this argument.

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``` _    _    __   __     _____    ______   _    _
| |  | ||  \ \\/ //   / ___//  /_   _// | \  / ||
| |/\| ||   \ ` //    \___ \\   -| ||-  |  \/  ||
|  /\  ||    | ||     /    //   _| ||_  | .  . ||
|_// \_||    |_||    /____//   /_____// |_|\/|_||
`-`   `-`    `-`'   `-----`    `-----`  `-`  `-`

```