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10.4 Outdoor Sports

10.4 Outdoor Sports
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  • 21. Lightning Fatality Rate Versus Heat Fatality Rate

    The heat index is the temperature the body feels when heat and humidity are combined. The chart shows the heat index that corresponds to the actual air temperature and relative humidity. This chart is based upon shady, light wind conditions. Exposure to direct sunlight can increase the heat index by up to 15°F. The National Weather Service will issue an excessive heat warning when the heat index is expected to exceed 105°F in the next 36 hours. From 2000 to 2009, heat killed more people in the United States than any other weather-related incident.

    On average, lightning kills 48 people per year. Heat kills 237.5% more people each year than lightning. What is the annual fatality rate of heat?

    • Worked-Out Solution

      Heat kills 237.5% more people each year than lightning. This means that heat kills the same amount of people as lightning plus an extra 237.5% percent.

      The annual fatality rate of heat is 162 fatalities per year.

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     ______      ___     __   __     ___    __    __  
    |      \\   / _ \\   \ \\/ //   / _ \\  \ \\ / // 
    |  --  //  | / \ ||   \   //   / //\ \\  \ \/ //  
    |  --  \\  | \_/ ||   / . \\  |  ___  ||  \  //   
    |______//   \___//   /_//\_\\ |_||  |_||   \//    
    `------`    `---`    `-`  --` `-`   `-`     `     
                                                      
    
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  • 22. Tornado Fatality Rate

    The heat index is the temperature the body feels when heat and humidity are combined. The chart shows the heat index that corresponds to the actual air temperature and relative humidity. This chart is based upon shady, light wind conditions. Exposure to direct sunlight can increase the heat index by up to 15°F. The National Weather Service will issue an excessive heat warning when the heat index is expected to exceed 105°F in the next 36 hours. From 2000 to 2009, heat killed more people in the United States than any other weather-related incident.

    On average, tornadoes kill 100 fewer people per year than heat. What is the annual fatality rate of tornadoes?

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                 ___     ______     _____    _    _   
      ____      / _ \\  |      \\  |  ___|| | |  | || 
     |    \\   | / \ || |  --  //  | ||__   | |/\| || 
     | [] ||   | \_/ || |  --  \\  | ||__   |  /\  || 
     |  __//    \___//  |______//  |_____|| |_// \_|| 
     |_|`-`     `---`   `------`   `-----`  `-`   `-` 
     `-`                                              
    
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  • 23. Excessive Heat Warning

    The heat index is the temperature the body feels when heat and humidity are combined. The chart shows the heat index that corresponds to the actual air temperature and relative humidity. This chart is based upon shady, light wind conditions. Exposure to direct sunlight can increase the heat index by up to 15°F. The National Weather Service will issue an excessive heat warning when the heat index is expected to exceed 105°F in the next 36 hours. From 2000 to 2009, heat killed more people in the United States than any other weather-related incident.

    Suppose tomorrow's high temperature is predicted to be 92°F with a relative humidity of 80%. Should the National Weather Service issue an excessive heat warning? Explain your reasoning.

    • Worked-Out Solution

      Yes, the National Weather Service should issue an excessive heat warning. A temperature of 92°F with a relative humidity of 80% corresponds to a heat index of 121°F. Any heat index value that exceeds 105°F warrants an excessive heat warning from the National Weather Service.

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    __    __     ___      ______    ______    _  __  
    \ \\ / //   / _ \\   /_   _//  /_   _//  | |/ // 
     \ \/ //   | / \ ||    | ||     -| ||-   | ' //  
      \  //    | \_/ ||   _| ||     _| ||_   | . \\  
       \//      \___//   /__//     /_____//  |_|\_\\ 
        `       `---`    `--`      `-----`   `-` --` 
                                                     
    
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  • 24. Mountain Climbing

    The heat index is the temperature the body feels when heat and humidity are combined. The chart shows the heat index that corresponds to the actual air temperature and relative humidity. This chart is based upon shady, light wind conditions. Exposure to direct sunlight can increase the heat index by up to 15°F. The National Weather Service will issue an excessive heat warning when the heat index is expected to exceed 105°F in the next 36 hours. From 2000 to 2009, heat killed more people in the United States than any other weather-related incident.

    Suppose you are climbing the west side of a mountain on a sunny afternoon. The temperature is 88°F with a relative humidity of 60%. Should you be concerned about the heat index? Explain your reasoning.

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      _____      ___     _____      _____    __   _   
     /  ___||   / _ \\  |  __ \\   |  ___|| | || | || 
    | // __    | / \ || | |  \ ||  | ||__   | '--' || 
    | \\_\ ||  | \_/ || | |__/ ||  | ||__   | .--. || 
     \____//    \___//  |_____//   |_____|| |_|| |_|| 
      `---`     `---`    -----`    `-----`  `-`  `-`  
                                                      
    
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  • 25. Relationship Between Heat Index and Temperature

    The heat index is the temperature the body feels when heat and humidity are combined. The chart shows the heat index that corresponds to the actual air temperature and relative humidity. This chart is based upon shady, light wind conditions. Exposure to direct sunlight can increase the heat index by up to 15°F. The National Weather Service will issue an excessive heat warning when the heat index is expected to exceed 105°F in the next 36 hours. From 2000 to 2009, heat killed more people in the United States than any other weather-related incident.

    Holding the relative humidity constant, does the heat index have a linear relationship with the temperature? Explain your reasoning.

    • Worked-Out Solution

      Holding the relative humidity constant, the heat index does not have a linear relationship with the temperature. For instance, hold the relative humidity at 40%. The first differences of the heat index values are not constant, so the relationship between heat index and temperature is not linear. As you can see from the first differences, the heat index increases at an increasing rate as the temperature increases.

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                ______   __   _     ______   _    _   
        ___    /_   _// | || | ||  /_   _// | \  / || 
       /   ||   -| ||-  | '--' ||   -| ||-  |  \/  || 
      | [] ||   _| ||_  | .--. ||   _| ||_  | .  . || 
       \__ ||  /_____// |_|| |_||  /_____// |_|\/|_|| 
        -|_||  `-----`  `-`  `-`   `-----`  `-`  `-`  
         `-`                                          
    
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  • 26. Planning a Hiking Trip

    The heat index is the temperature the body feels when heat and humidity are combined. The chart shows the heat index that corresponds to the actual air temperature and relative humidity. This chart is based upon shady, light wind conditions. Exposure to direct sunlight can increase the heat index by up to 15°F. The National Weather Service will issue an excessive heat warning when the heat index is expected to exceed 105°F in the next 36 hours. From 2000 to 2009, heat killed more people in the United States than any other weather-related incident.

    How might the heat index affect the planning of a hiking trip?

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     _    _     ______    _  __   __   __   ______   
    | |  | ||  /_   _//  | |/ //  \ \\/ // |      \\ 
    | |/\| ||   -| ||-   | ' //    \ ` //  |  --  // 
    |  /\  ||   _| ||_   | . \\     | ||   |  --  \\ 
    |_// \_||  /_____//  |_|\_\\    |_||   |______// 
    `-`   `-`  `-----`   `-` --`    `-`'   `------`  
                                                     
    
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