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Chapter 1 Review Exercises

Chapter 1 Review Exercises
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  • 13. Finding the Amount of Freshwater on Earth

    There are about 332.5 million cubic miles of water on Earth. How many cubic miles of Earth's water is freshwater?

    • Worked-Out Solution

      There are about 10 million cubic miles of freshwater on Earth. About two-thirds of this is frozen and stored in Earth's icecaps and glaciers.

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     _    _    __   __    _  _      ___     __   __  
    | || | ||  \ \\/ //  | \| ||   / _ \\   \ \\/ // 
    | || | ||   \ ` //   |  ' ||  / //\ \\   \   //  
    | \\_/ ||    | ||    | .  || |  ___  ||  / . \\  
     \____//     |_||    |_|\_|| |_||  |_|| /_//\_\\ 
      `---`      `-`'    `-` -`  `-`   `-`  `-`  --` 
                                                     
    
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  • 14. Finding the Amount of Frozen Freshwater

    How much freshwater is frozen in icecaps and glaciers?

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      ______   __   __             _    _    _    _   
     /_____//  \ \\/ //   ____    | || | || | |  | || 
     `____ `    \ ` //   |    \\  | || | || | |/\| || 
     /___//      | ||    | [] ||  | \\_/ || |  /\  || 
     `__ `       |_||    |  __//   \____//  |_// \_|| 
     /_//        `-`'    |_|`-`     `---`   `-`   `-` 
     `-`                 `-`                          
    
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  • 15. Percent of Earth's Lakes that hold Freshwater

    The lakes on Earth hold 42,320 cubic miles of water. Of this, 20,490 cubic miles are saline. The rest are freshwater. What percent of the water in lakes is freshwater?

    • Worked-Out Solution

      To find the percent of Earth's lake water that is freshwater, divide the amount of freshwater in lakes by the total amount of water that is in lakes.

      About 51.6% of the water in Earth's lakes is freshwater.

      Salt lakes are formed when water containing salt flows into a lake that has no outlets. When the amount of water that flows into the lake is less than the amount of evaporation, the dissolved salts are left behind and the land is known as a salt flat. The Bonneville Salt Flats in western Utah are the result of the evaporation of the ancient Lake Bonneville. Some of the larger salt lakes in the world include the Caspian Sea, the Aral Sea, Lake Balkhash, and the Great Salt Lake.

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      ______   _    _    ______     _____    _    _   
     /_____// | || | || |      \\  |  ___|| | || | || 
     `____ `  | || | || |  --  //  | ||__   | || | || 
     /___//   | \\_/ || |  --  \\  | ||__   | \\_/ || 
     `__ `     \____//  |______//  |_____||  \____//  
     /_//       `---`   `------`   `-----`    `---`   
     `-`                                              
    
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  • 16. Percent of Earth's Water that is Underground

    Ground water accounts for about 5.6 million cubic miles of water. What percent of Earth's water is underground?

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     _    _      ___      ______   _    _      _____  
    | || | ||   / _ \\   /_   _// | || | ||   / ___// 
    | || | ||  / //\ \\    | ||   | || | ||   \___ \\ 
    | \\_/ || |  ___  ||  _| ||   | \\_/ ||   /    // 
     \____//  |_||  |_|| /__//     \____//   /____//  
      `---`   `-`   `-`  `--`       `---`   `-----`   
                                                      
    
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  • 17. Melting of Icecaps and Glaciers

    Suppose climate change causes some of the icecaps and glaciers to melt, adding 6000 cubic miles of freshwater to the surface water. Use percent to describe the increase in surface water.

    • Worked-Out Solution

      From Exercise 13, you know that there are about 9,975,000 cubic miles of freshwater on Earth. From the graph above, you can see that 0.3% of Earth's freshwater is surface water.

       

      If the melting of icecaps and glaciers added 6000 cubic miles to this surface water, then that would be a percent change of

      This would be a significant change in Earth's fresh surface water.

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      ______   __   __   ______     ______   _    _   
     /_____//  \ \\/ // |      \\  /_   _// | || | || 
     `____ `    \ ` //  |  --  //   -| ||-  | || | || 
     /___//      | ||   |  --  \\   _| ||_  | \\_/ || 
     `__ `       |_||   |______//  /_____//  \____//  
     /_//        `-`'   `------`   `-----`    `---`   
     `-`                                              
    
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  • 18. Effects of an Increase in Surface Water

    What effect would a significant increase in surface water have on Earth and its inhabitants?

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     _    _    __   __    _____      ___     _    _   
    | \  / ||  \ \\/ //  |__  //    / _ \\  | \  / || 
    |  \/  ||   \ ` //     / //    | / \ || |  \/  || 
    | .  . ||    | ||     / //__   | \_/ || | .  . || 
    |_|\/|_||    |_||    /_____||   \___//  |_|\/|_|| 
    `-`  `-`     `-`'    `-----`    `---`   `-`  `-`  
                                                      
    
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  • 19. Describing Types of Freshwater

    One of the categories in the graph is "Other." Where else do you think you can find freshwater besides the categories shown?

    • Worked-Out Solution

      Earth's water occurs as:

      1. Oceans

      2. Icecaps and Glaciers

      3. Ground water (wells, aquifers)

      4. Surface water (rivers, lakes, ponds, wet lands, streams)

      What else is there? The answer is that water also occurs in the atmosphere and in the bodies of plants and animals.

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     _____       ___      ____       ___      _____   
    |  __ \\    / _ \\   |  _ \\    / _ \\   / ____|| 
    | |  \ ||  | / \ ||  | |_| ||  / //\ \\ / //---`' 
    | |__/ ||  | \_/ ||  | .  //  |  ___  ||\ \\___   
    |_____//    \___//   |_|\_\\  |_||  |_|| \_____|| 
     -----`     `---`    `-` --`  `-`   `-`   `----`  
                                                      
    
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  • 20. Volume of Water on Earth

    How do you think scientists estimated that there are about 332.5 million cubic miles of water on Earth?

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      _  _     ______   __   __   __   __    ______  
     | \| ||  /_   _//  \ \\/ //  \ \\/ //  /_   _// 
     |  ' ||   -| ||-    \   //    \ ` //     | ||   
     | .  ||   _| ||_    / . \\     | ||     _| ||   
     |_|\_||  /_____//  /_//\_\\    |_||    /__//    
     `-` -`   `-----`   `-`  --`    `-`'    `--`     
                                                     
    
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