### Chapter 1 Review Exercises

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• 7. Daily Oil Consumption by the United States

The pictograph shows the oil consumption and production of the top 5 oil consuming countries in 2008.

1. Estimate the number of barrels of oil consumed by the United States per day. Write your answer in standard decimal notation.

2. For how many years do you think the United States and the rest of the world can continue consuming oil at this rate? Explain your reasoning.

• Worked-Out Solution
1. The pictograph shows 19.5 for the daily oil consumption of the United States. Each represents 1,000,000 barrels. So, the United States consumed about

in 2008.

2. For several reasons, the period of Earth's history from 1900 through 2100 has unusual characteristics. In years to come, this period will probably be called "The Fossil Fuel - Antibiotic Era" of Earth's history. When fossil fuels have been depleted and when medical science can no longer discover new antibiotics, Earth's population should have a much more difficult time in maintaining its current level of overpopulation and also its current level of environmental destruction. When this will occur is uncertain, but one would guess that it will occur before 2100.

Regardless of the year in which Earth will deplete its oil, there are still things that people can do to conserve and postpone the "depletion year."

1. Realize that oil is not an infinite resource.

2. Realize that remaining supplies of oil must be used wisely.

3. Realize that alternative sources of energy need to be brought on line soon.

Think of these issues the next time you fill up your car's gas tank or the next time you buy a car.

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```  _____      ___      _____      ___
/ ____||   / _ \\   |__  //    / _ \\      ___
/ //---`'  / //\ \\    / //    | / \ ||    /   ||
\ \\___   |  ___  ||  / //__   | \_/ ||   | [] ||
\_____|| |_||  |_|| /_____||   \___//     \__ ||
`----`  `-`   `-`  `-----`    `---`       -|_||
`-`
```
• 8. Daily Oil Production by Russia

The pictograph shows the oil consumption and production of the top 5 oil consuming countries in 2008. Estimate the number of barrels of oil produced by Russia per day. Write your answer in exponential notation.

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```  _____    __   __    _  _    _    _   __    __
/  ___||  \ \\/ //  | \| || | || | || \ \\ / //
| // __     \ ` //   |  ' || | || | ||  \ \/ //
| \\_\ ||    | ||    | .  || | \\_/ ||   \  //
\____//     |_||    |_|\_||  \____//     \//
`---`      `-`'    `-` -`    `---`       `

```
• 9. Daily per Captia Oil Consumption in China

The pictograph shows the oil consumption and production of the top 5 oil consuming countries in 2008. A barrel of oil contains 42 gallons of oil.

1. In 2008, the population of China was about 1.3 billion. Estimate the number of gallons of oil consumed by China per person per day.

2. In 2008, the population of the United States was about 304 million. Compare your estimate in part (a) with the number of gallons of oil consumed by the United States per person per day.

• Worked-Out Solution
1. The pictograph shows about 7.8 for the daily oil consumption of China. Each represents 1,000,000 barrels. So, China consumed about

in 2008. To find the per capita consumption per day, divide by the population.

To find the number of gallons of oil consumed by China per person per day, multiply by the number of gallons of oil in a barrel of oil.

2. From Exercise 7, you know that the United States consumption was 19,500,000 per day. To find the per capita daily consumption for 2008, divide by the population of the United States in 2008.

To find the number of gallons of oil consumed by the United States per person per day, multiply by the number of gallons of oil in a barrel of oil.

So, on average, each American consumes about 10 times more oil per day than each Chinese person.

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```  _  __     ___     _    _     _____     _  __
| |/ //   / _ \\  | \  / ||  |  ___||  | |/ //
| ' //   | / \ || |  \/  ||  | ||__    | ' //
| . \\   | \_/ || | .  . ||  | ||__    | . \\
|_|\_\\   \___//  |_|\/|_||  |_____||  |_|\_\\
`-` --`   `---`   `-`  `-`   `-----`   `-` --`

```
• 10. Estimate and Compare Oil Exports

The pictograph shows the oil consumption and production of the top 5 oil consuming countries in 2008. Use the formula below to estimate and compare the net exports for Russia and Japan. What does a negative value indicate?

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``` __   __    _____     _  __     ___    __    __
\ \\/ //  |  ___||  | |/ //   / _ \\  \ \\ / //
\   //   | ||__    | ' //   / //\ \\  \ \/ //
/ . \\   | ||__    | . \\  |  ___  ||  \  //
/_//\_\\  |_____||  |_|\_\\ |_||  |_||   \//
`-`  --`  `-----`   `-` --` `-`   `-`     `

```
• 11. Importation of Iranian Oil to Japan

Use the information in the doughnut graph to estimate the total number of barrels of oil Japan imported from Iran in 2008. Looking at the pictograph, why do you think that Japan is one of Iran's top importers?

• Worked-Out Solution

From the doughnut graph, you can see that in 2008, Japan imported

from Iran. To find the total number of barrels of oil Japan imported from Iran in 2008, multiply by 365 days.

From the pictograph, you can see that Japan does not produce much oil. If it continues to consume oil, it must import it from some other country.

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```__    __   __   __     _____    ______   __   __
\ \\ / //  \ \\/ //   / ___//  /_   _//  \ \\/ //
\ \/ //    \ ` //    \___ \\   -| ||-    \   //
\  //      | ||     /    //   _| ||_    / . \\
\//       |_||    /____//   /_____//  /_//\_\\
`        `-`'   `-----`    `-----`   `-`  --`

```
• 12. Importation of Iranian Oil to the United States

The United States does not import any oil from Iran because of economic sanctions against the Middle Eastern country. It is estimated that lifting the sanctions could save the United States \$76 billion per year. Suppose sanctions were lifted. Estimate how much the United States would save per day

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```  ______    ______   _    _     _____     _  __