### 8.1 Assigning a Measure to Likelihood

<
>
• 7. Fatal Occupational Injuries

The graph shows the rates of fatal occupational injuries per 100,000 full-time workers for several industries. (See Example 3.)

1. Compare the rates of fatal occupational injuries for the different industries.
2. Why do different industries have different rates?

• Worked-Out Solution
1. Even in the most dangerous of the industries, the annual rate of fatal injury is

which means that a fatal industrial accident is very unlikely. Of the industries shown in the graph, mining is the most dangerous.

2. Industries differ in fatality rates for the obvious reason that some industries are much more dangerous than others. The Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) posts data at its website on fatalities in various industries.

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

```  ______   __   __     _____    ______   __   __
/_   _//  \ \\/ //   / ___//  /_   _//  \ \\/ //
`-| |,-    \ ` //    \___ \\   -| ||-    \   //
| ||      | ||     /    //   _| ||_    / . \\
|_||      |_||    /____//   /_____//  /_//\_\\
`-`'      `-`'   `-----`    `-----`   `-`  --`

```
• 8. Fatal Occupational Injuries

The graph shows the numbers of fatal occupational injuries for the same industries as in Exercise 7. (See Example 3.)

1. Compare the numbers of fatal occupational injuries for the different industries.
2. Explain why financial activities and mining have the same number of fatal occupational injuries, but their rates in Exercise 7 are different.

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

``` _____     __   __   _    _     _____    _    _
|  __ \\   \ \\/ // | |  | ||  |  ___|| | \  / ||
| |  \ ||   \ ` //  | |/\| ||  | ||__   |  \/  ||
| |__/ ||    | ||   |  /\  ||  | ||__   | .  . ||
|_____//     |_||   |_// \_||  |_____|| |_|\/|_||
-----`      `-`'   `-`   `-`  `-----`  `-`  `-`

```
• 9. Nuclear Plant Meltdown

Determine the likelihood and significance of a nuclear plant meltdown. (See Example 4.)

• Worked-Out Solution

A meltdown at a nuclear plant, like that at Fukushima pictured below, is extremely unlikely but highly significant.

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

```  ______   __   __               ___     __   _
/_   _//  \ \\/ //   ____      / _ \\  | || | ||
| ||     \ ` //   |    \\   | / \ || | '--' ||
_| ||      | ||    | [] ||   | \_/ || | .--. ||
/__//       |_||    |  __//    \___//  |_|| |_||
`--`        `-`'    |_|`-`     `---`   `-`  `-`
`-`
```
• 10. Foodborne Illness

Determine the likelihood and significance of contracting a foodborne illness during your lifetime. (See Example 4.)

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

``` __   __    ______               ___      _  _
\ \\/ //  /_   _//   ____      / _ \\   | \| ||
\   //    -| ||-   |    \\   | / \ ||  |  ' ||
/ . \\    _| ||_   | [] ||   | \_/ ||  | .  ||
/_//\_\\  /_____//  |  __//    \___//   |_|\_||
`-`  --`  `-----`   |_|`-`     `---`    `-` -`
`-`
```
• 11. Flood Damage

Determine the likelihood and significance of a flood damaging property on a hilltop. (See Example 4.)

• Worked-Out Solution

A flood damaging property on a hilltop like that pictured below in the Johnstown Flood of 1889, is extremely unlikely but highly significant.

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

```  _  _    _    _     _____    _    _    ______
| \| || | || | ||  / ____|| | || | || |      \\
|  ' || | || | || / //---`' | || | || |  --  //
| .  || | \\_/ || \ \\___   | \\_/ || |  --  \\
|_|\_||  \____//   \_____||  \____//  |______//
`-` -`    `---`     `----`    `---`   `------`

```
• 12. Heart Disease

Determine the likelihood and significance of a person with high blood pressure contracting heart disease. (See Example 4.)

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

```  ______     ___      _____      ___      ______
/_   _//   / _ \\   /  ___||   / _ \\   /_   _//
| ||    / //\ \\ | // __    | / \ ||    | ||
_| ||   |  ___  ||| \\_\ ||  | \_/ ||   _| ||
/__//    |_||  |_|| \____//    \___//   /__//
`--`     `-`   `-`   `---`     `---`    `--`

```
• 13. Deployed Air Bag

Determine the likelihood and significance of a deployed air bag causing a severe injury. (See Example 4.)

• Worked-Out Solution

It is very unlikely that a deployed air bag will cause a severe injury. When this happens, however, it is significant.

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

```  ______     ___     _    _     ______    _____
/_   _//   / _ \\  | \  / ||  /_   _//  / ____||
`-| |,-   / //\ \\ |  \/  ||   -| ||-  / //---`'
| ||   |  ___  ||| .  . ||   _| ||_  \ \\___
|_||   |_||  |_|||_|\/|_||  /_____//  \_____||
`-`'   `-`   `-` `-`  `-`   `-----`    `----`

```
• 14. Cancer

Determine the likelihood and significance of a heavy smoker contracting cancer. (See Example 4.)

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.
```  _____    __   __   _    _      ___