### Chapter 3 Review Exercises

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• 25. Logical Fallacies

Draw a set diagram to analyze the conclusion.

When there is a lot of traffic, Laura is late for her appointments. Laura is late for her appointment, so there must have been a lot of traffic.

• Worked-Out Solution

Here is one possible invalid syllogism.

 • Premise: If there is a lot of traffic, then Laura is late for her appointments. • Premise: Laura is late for her appiontments. • Conclusion: There must have been a lot of traffic.

This type of fallacy is called affirming the consequent.

 • Premise: If P, then Q. • Premise: Q. • Conclusion: Therefore, P.

In the first premise, Q is called the consequent. The name affirming the consequent comes from the fact that the second premise states that Q is true.

Here is one way to draw a diagram that helps to analyze this fallacy.

Stating that a syllogism is a fallacy simply means that the conclusion was not obtained by logical deduction. It does not mean that the conclusion of the syllogism is false.

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```__    __    ______   _    _     _____    _    _
\ \\ / //  /_   _// | || | ||  |  ___|| | |  | ||
\ \/ //    -| ||-  | || | ||  | ||__   | |/\| ||
\  //     _| ||_  | \\_/ ||  | ||__   |  /\  ||
\//     /_____//  \____//   |_____|| |_// \_||
`      `-----`    `---`    `-----`  `-`   `-`

```
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• 26. Logical Fallacies

Draw a set diagram to analyze the conclusion.

Anthony is from Texas. Texas is a "red" state. Therefore, Anthony is a Republican.

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``` ______    _    _     _____     _____     ______
|      \\ | || | ||  / ____||  |  ___||  /_   _//
|  --  // | || | || / //---`'  | ||__      | ||
|  --  \\ | \\_/ || \ \\___    | ||__     _| ||
|______//  \____//   \_____||  |_____||  /__//
`------`    `---`     `----`   `-----`   `--`

```
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• 27. Logical Fallacies

Draw a set diagram to analyze the conclusion.

When Lynn is lying to me, she can't look me in the eye. Lynn's not looking me in the eye, so I know she's lying.

• Worked-Out Solution

Here is one possible invalid syllogism.

 • Premise: If Lynn is lying, then she can't look me in the eye. • Premise: Lynn is not looking me in the eye. • Conclusion: She must be lying.

This type of fallacy is called affirming the consequent.

 • Premise: If P, then Q. • Premise: Q. • Conclusion: Therefore, P.

In the first premise, Q is called the consequent. The name affirming the consequent comes from the fact that the second premise states that Q is true.

Here is one way to draw a diagram that helps to analyze this fallacy.

Stating that a syllogism is a fallacy simply means that the conclusion was not obtained by logical deduction. It does not mean that the conclusion of the syllogism is false.

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```__    __     ___                 ___      _  _
\ \\ / //   / _ \\      ___     / _ \\   | \| ||
\ \/ //   / //\ \\    /   ||  / //\ \\  |  ' ||
\  //   |  ___  ||  | [] || |  ___  || | .  ||
\//    |_||  |_||   \__ || |_||  |_|| |_|\_||
`     `-`   `-`     -|_|| `-`   `-`  `-` -`
`-`
```
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• 28. Logical Fallacies

Draw a set diagram to analyze the conclusion.

Marcus's girlfriend does not like horror movies. So, he rents an action movie and concludes that she will like it because it is not a horror movie.

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``` __   __    ______   _    _    _    _     _____
\ \\/ //  /_   _// | \  / || | || | ||  |__  //
\   //    -| ||-  |  \/  || | || | ||    / //
/ . \\    _| ||_  | .  . || | \\_/ ||   / //__
/_//\_\\  /_____// |_|\/|_||  \____//   /_____||
`-`  --`  `-----`  `-`  `-`    `---`    `-----`

```
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• Worked-Out Solution

This type of fallacy is common in sports advertisements. The assumption is that if you use the advertiser's product, then you will be good at a particular sport.

Of course, it is possible that this particular brand of gold clubs is a help to a person who is already an accomplished golfer. But, for a person who is not skilled at golf, one would not believe that the person can gain "precision" simply by buying the set of golf clubs.

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```  ______    _____     ____      ______    ______
/_   _//  |  ___||  |  _ \\   /_   _//  /_____//
`-| |,-   | ||__    | |_| ||   -| ||-   `____ `
| ||    | ||__    | .  //    _| ||_   /___//
|_||    |_____||  |_|\_\\   /_____//  `__ `
`-`'    `-----`   `-` --`   `-----`   /_//
`-`
```
There are no comments.

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```  _  __   _    _               ______  __    __
| |/ // | || | ||     ___    /_   _// \ \\ / //
| ' //  | || | ||    /   ||   -| ||-   \ \/ //
| . \\  | \\_/ ||   | [] ||   _| ||_    \  //
|_|\_\\  \____//     \__ ||  /_____//    \//
`-` --`   `---`       -|_||  `-----`      `
`-`
```
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• Worked-Out Solution

This type of fallacy is common to almost all political advertisements. By picturing the candidate with the American flag, the advertiser is appealing to emotion and is also implying that the candidate is patriotic and has some right to be associated with the flag. This portion of the ad is made more blatant by claiming that "A vote for Jamie is a vote for America."

The message "The Change We Need" incorporates a variety of fallacies. Among other things, it is an example of begging the question, because it assumes that we need change.

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```  ______     ___      ____     _    _
/_____//   / _ \\   |  _ \\  | || | ||   ____
`____ `   / //\ \\  | |_| || | || | ||  |    \\
/___//   |  ___  || | .  //  | \\_/ ||  | [] ||
`__ `    |_||  |_|| |_|\_\\   \____//   |  __//
/_//     `-`   `-`  `-` --`    `---`    |_|`-`
`-`                                     `-`
```
There are no comments.

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``` __   _    __   __   ______     ______
| || | ||  \ \\/ // |      \\  /_   _//     ___
| '--' ||   \ ` //  |  --  //   -| ||-     /   ||
| .--. ||    | ||   |  --  \\   _| ||_    | [] ||
|_|| |_||    |_||   |______//  /_____//    \__ ||
`-`  `-`     `-`'   `------`   `-----`      -|_||
`-`
```