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3.4 Fallacies in Logic

3.4 Fallacies in Logic
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  • 25. Other Types of Fallacies

    Six types of fallacies are given. Determine which fallacy applies.

    QUAYLE: "....I have as much experience in the Congress as Jack Kennedy did when he sought the presidency...."

    BENTSEN: "Senator, I served with Jack Kennedy, I knew Jack Kennedy, Jack Kennedy was a friend of mine. Senator you are no Jack Kennedy."

    1988 Vice-Presidential Debate

    • Worked-Out Solution

      This is an example (on the part of Senator Bentsen) of ad hominem, an argument that attacks the character of a person rather than addressing the actual issue.

      At the time, the fallacy appeared to have been effective. However, George Bush and Dan Quayle did win the election. So, it is not clear that the attack on Dan Quayle (which was frequently replayed by the Democrat party) was actually effective.

      This famous exchange occurred in the 1988 Vice-Presidential Debate that was televised nationally. If you are interested in reading more of this debate, visit the Commission on Presidential Debates.

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     `-` --`   `-----`  `-`   `-` `-`   `-`   `---`   
                                                      
    
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  • 26. Other Types of Fallacies

    Six types of fallacies are given. Determine which fallacy applies.

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     ______    __   __             __   __    _____   
    |      \\  \ \\/ //     ___    \ \\/ //  / ____|| 
    |  --  //   \ ` //     /   ||   \ ` //  / //---`' 
    |  --  \\    | ||     | [] ||    | ||   \ \\___   
    |______//    |_||      \__ ||    |_||    \_____|| 
    `------`     `-`'       -|_||    `-`'     `----`  
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  • 27. Other Types of Fallacies

    Six types of fallacies are given. Determine which fallacy applies.

    "The only thing I know is that I know nothing."

    Socrates

    • Worked-Out Solution

      This quote from Socrates is an example of a self-refuting idea. If it is true that Socrates "knows nothing," then "knowing nothing" can't be something that he knows.

      This translation of Socrates is sometimes stated, "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing."

      While the statement is a fallacy, one must assume that Socrates knew it was a fallacy in logical thinking, but nevertheless made the statement to emphasize how little each human knows when compared to the collection of all knowledge.

      Another example (not by Socrates) of a self-refuting idea is the statement, "Everything I say is a lie."

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     _    _     _____      _____   __   __            
    | |  | ||  |  ___||   / ___//  \ \\/ //     ___   
    | |/\| ||  | ||__     \___ \\   \ ` //     /   || 
    |  /\  ||  | ||__     /    //    | ||     | [] || 
    |_// \_||  |_____||  /____//     |_||      \__ || 
    `-`   `-`  `-----`  `-----`      `-`'       -|_|| 
                                                 `-`  
    
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  • 28. Other Types of Fallacies

    Six types of fallacies are given. Determine which fallacy applies.

    "Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists."

    George W. Bush

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      _____      ___      _____     ______            
     /  ___||   / _ \\   |__  //   /_   _//     ___   
    | // __    | / \ ||    / //     -| ||-     /   || 
    | \\_\ ||  | \_/ ||   / //__    _| ||_    | [] || 
     \____//    \___//   /_____||  /_____//    \__ || 
      `---`     `---`    `-----`   `-----`      -|_|| 
                                                 `-`  
    
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  • 29. Other Types of Fallacies

    Six types of fallacies are given. Determine which fallacy applies.

    • Worked-Out Solution

      This common type of advertisement is a example of ad populum, an argument with the premise that if a majority believes that something is true, then it is true.

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       _____     ___     _    _     ______  __    __  
      / ___//   / _ \\  | |  | ||  /_   _// \ \\ / // 
      \___ \\  / //\ \\ | |/\| ||   -| ||-   \ \/ //  
      /    // |  ___  |||  /\  ||   _| ||_    \  //   
     /____//  |_||  |_|||_// \_||  /_____//    \//    
    `-----`   `-`   `-` `-`   `-`  `-----`      `     
                                                      
    
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  • 30. Other Types of Fallacies

    Six types of fallacies are given. Determine which fallacy applies.

    "We see that every city-state is a community of some sort, and that every community is establlished for the sake of some good (for everyone performs every action for the sake of what he takes to be good)."

    Politics, Aristotle

    (Translated by C.D.C Reeve)

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     ______      ___       _____     ___     _    _   
    |      \\   / _ \\    / ___//   / _ \\  | || | || 
    |  --  //  / //\ \\   \___ \\  / //\ \\ | || | || 
    |  --  \\ |  ___  ||  /    // |  ___  ||| \\_/ || 
    |______// |_||  |_|| /____//  |_||  |_|| \____//  
    `------`  `-`   `-` `-----`   `-`   `-`   `---`   
                                                      
    
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