### 3.4 Fallacies in Logic

<
>

• Worked-Out Solution

This type of fallacy is common with many advertisements. It pictures a person with beautiful teeth. The assumption is that if you use the toothpaste, your teeth will also be beautiful.

This advertisement has an additional fallacy, which implies that there has been some sort of survey to conclude that 90% of all dentists recommend this brand of toothpaste. One would hope that in the fine print of the advertisement, there is some sort of justification for this implication.

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

_____      ___     _    _     _____
/  ___||   / _ \\  | |  | ||  |  ___||   ____
| // __    | / \ || | |/\| ||  | ||__    |    \\
| \\_\ ||  | \_/ || |  /\  ||  | ||__    | [] ||
\____//    \___//  |_// \_||  |_____||  |  __//
`---`     `---`   `-`   `-`  `-----`   |_|`-`
`-`

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

_____    _____                ___      _  _
/ ___//  |  ___||   ____      / _ \\   | \| ||
\___ \\  | ||__    |    \\   | / \ ||  |  ' ||
/    //  | ||__    | [] ||   | \_/ ||  | .  ||
/____//   |_____||  |  __//    \___//   |_|\_||
`-----`    `-----`   |_|`-`     `---`    `-` -`
`-`

• Worked-Out Solution

This type of fallacy is common in sports advertisements. The assumption is that if you use the advertiser's product, then you will be good at a particular sport.

Although this type of advertising is common, you can realize that the claim "It's all in the shoes" is ludicrous. Surely, the advertiser knows that there are many other things that are required for good athletic performance, such as physical traits and practice.

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

_    _      ___     __   _     _____      _____
| || | ||   / _ \\  | || | ||  |  ___||   / ___//
| || | ||  | / \ || | '--' ||  | ||__     \___ \\
| \\_/ ||  | \_/ || | .--. ||  | ||__     /    //
\____//    \___//  |_|| |_||  |_____||  /____//
`---`     `---`   `-`  `-`   `-----`  `-----`

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

______      ___     _    _    _    _   __    __
|      \\   / _ \\  | || | || | || | || \ \\ / //
|  --  //  / //\ \\ | || | || | || | ||  \ \/ //
|  --  \\ |  ___  ||| \\_/ || | \\_/ ||   \  //
|______// |_||  |_|| \____//   \____//     \//
`------`  `-`   `-`   `---`     `---`       `

• Worked-Out Solution

This type of fallacy is common to almost all political advertisements. By picturing the candidate with the American flag, the advertiser is appealing to emotion and is also implying that the candidate is patriotic and has some right to be associated with the flag.

The message "I want you to vote" is a somewhat more subtle type of fallacy. The message implies that the candidate is more interested in democracy and having all people vote and is not particularly interested in whether they vote for him. One would guess that this is not true.

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

_____    ______   _    _    _    _
/ ___//  /_   _// | || | || | || | ||   ____
\___ \\   -| ||-  | || | || | || | ||  |    \\
/    //   _| ||_  | \\_/ || | \\_/ ||  | [] ||
/____//   /_____//  \____//   \____//   |  __//
`-----`    `-----`    `---`     `---`    |_|`-`
`-`

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

__   _     _____     _____      ___
| || | ||  |  ___||  |__  //    / _ \\    ____
| '--' ||  | ||__      / //    / //\ \\  |    \\
| .--. ||  | ||__     / //__  |  ___  || | [] ||
|_|| |_||  |_____||  /_____|| |_||  |_|| |  __//
`-`  `-`   `-----`   `-----`  `-`   `-`  |_|`-`
`-`

Weatherproof Garment Company controversially displayed an ad in Times Square showing President Obama wearing one of the company's jackets without his permission. The slogan on the ad was "A Leader In Style." Analyze the logic of the advertisement. (See Example 5.)

• Worked-Out Solution

This is the same type of fallacy "Appeal to Celebrity" that is used in the Marilyn Monroe advertisement in Example 5. While it appears true that President Obama did own and wear the jacket, there is no evidence that the president's political leadership also makes him a leader in fashion or style.

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.

__    __     ___     _    _     ______   _____
\ \\ / //   / _ \\  | \  / ||  /_   _// |  __ \\
\ \/ //   / //\ \\ |  \/  ||   -| ||-  | |  \ ||
\  //   |  ___  ||| .  . ||   _| ||_  | |__/ ||
\//    |_||  |_|||_|\/|_||  /_____// |_____//
`     `-`   `-` `-`  `-`   `-----`   -----`

Find an example of a commercial advertisement and analyze its logic. (See Example 5.)

These comments are not screened before publication. Constructive debate about the information on this page is welcome, but personal attacks are not. Please do not post comments that are commercial in nature or that violate copyright. Comments that we regard as obscene, defamatory, or intended to incite violence will be removed. If you find a comment offensive, you may flag it.