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3.4 Fallacies in Logic

3.4 Fallacies in Logic
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  • 17. Toothpaste Advertisement

    Analyze the advertisement. (See Example 5)

    • Worked-Out Solution

      This type of fallacy is common with many advertisements. It pictures a person with beautiful teeth. The assumption is that if you use the toothpaste, your teeth will also be beautiful.

      This advertisement has an additional fallacy, which implies that there has been some sort of survey to conclude that 90% of all dentists recommend this brand of toothpaste. One would hope that in the fine print of the advertisement, there is some sort of justification for this implication.

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      _____     _____     ______   _    _     ______  
     |__  //   |  ___||  /_   _// | || | ||  /_____// 
       / //    | ||__      | ||   | || | ||  `____ `  
      / //__   | ||__     _| ||   | \\_/ ||  /___//   
     /_____||  |_____||  /__//     \____//   `__ `    
     `-----`   `-----`   `--`       `---`    /_//     
                                             `-`      
    
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  • 18. Fitness Equipment Advertisement

    Analyze the advertisement. (See Example 5.)

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     __   __    ______   ______    _    _     ______  
     \ \\/ //  /_   _// |      \\ | || | ||  /_   _// 
      \   //    -| ||-  |  --  // | || | ||  `-| |,-  
      / . \\    _| ||_  |  --  \\ | \\_/ ||    | ||   
     /_//\_\\  /_____// |______//  \____//     |_||   
     `-`  --`  `-----`  `------`    `---`      `-`'   
                                                      
    
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  • 19. Shoe Advertisement

    Analyze the advertisement. (See Example 5.)

    • Worked-Out Solution

      This type of fallacy is common in sports advertisements. The assumption is that if you use the advertiser's product, then you will be good at a particular sport.

      Although this type of advertising is common, you can realize that the claim "It's all in the shoes" is ludicrous. Surely, the advertiser knows that there are many other things that are required for good athletic performance, such as physical traits and practice.

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      _____     _____    _____     _    _    __   _   
     / ____||  |  ___|| |  __ \\  | || | || | || | || 
    / //---`'  | ||__   | |  \ || | || | || | '--' || 
    \ \\___    | ||__   | |__/ || | \\_/ || | .--. || 
     \_____||  |_____|| |_____//   \____//  |_|| |_|| 
      `----`   `-----`   -----`     `---`   `-`  `-`  
                                                      
    
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  • 20. Safety Advertisement

    Analyze the advertisement. (See Example 5.)

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    __    __   _    _    _    _      ___     _    _   
    \ \\ / // | || | || | |  | ||   / _ \\  | || | || 
     \ \/ //  | || | || | |/\| ||  | / \ || | || | || 
      \  //   | \\_/ || |  /\  ||  | \_/ || | \\_/ || 
       \//     \____//  |_// \_||   \___//   \____//  
        `       `---`   `-`   `-`   `---`     `---`   
                                                      
    
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  • 21. Political Advertisement

    Analyze the political advertisement. (See Example 6.)

    • Worked-Out Solution

      This type of fallacy is common to almost all political advertisements. By picturing the candidate with the American flag, the advertiser is appealing to emotion and is also implying that the candidate is patriotic and has some right to be associated with the flag.

      The message "I want you to vote" is a somewhat more subtle type of fallacy. The message implies that the candidate is more interested in democracy and having all people vote and is not particularly interested in whether they vote for him. One would guess that this is not true.

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     __   _      ___       _____     ___      _____   
    | || | ||   / _ \\    / ___//   / _ \\   / ____|| 
    | '--' ||  | / \ ||   \___ \\  / //\ \\ / //---`' 
    | .--. ||  | \_/ ||   /    // |  ___  ||\ \\___   
    |_|| |_||   \___//   /____//  |_||  |_|| \_____|| 
    `-`  `-`    `---`   `-----`   `-`   `-`   `----`  
                                                      
    
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  • 22. Political Advertisement

    Analyze the political advertisement. (See Example 6.)

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      _____      ___     __   __     ___      ______  
     / ____||   / _ \\   \ \\/ //   / _ \\   /_   _// 
    / //---`'  / //\ \\   \   //   / //\ \\  `-| |,-  
    \ \\___   |  ___  ||  / . \\  |  ___  ||   | ||   
     \_____|| |_||  |_|| /_//\_\\ |_||  |_||   |_||   
      `----`  `-`   `-`  `-`  --` `-`   `-`    `-`'   
                                                      
    
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  • 23. Weatherproof Ad

    Weatherproof Garment Company controversially displayed an ad in Times Square showing President Obama wearing one of the company's jackets without his permission. The slogan on the ad was "A Leader In Style." Analyze the logic of the advertisement. (See Example 5.)

    • Worked-Out Solution

      This is the same type of fallacy "Appeal to Celebrity" that is used in the Marilyn Monroe advertisement in Example 5. While it appears true that President Obama did own and wear the jacket, there is no evidence that the president's political leadership also makes him a leader in fashion or style.

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      _____     ______   _____      ______    _  __  
     |__  //   /_   _// |  __ \\   /_   _//  | |/ // 
       / //     -| ||-  | |  \ ||   -| ||-   | ' //  
      / //__    _| ||_  | |__/ ||   _| ||_   | . \\  
     /_____||  /_____// |_____//   /_____//  |_|\_\\ 
     `-----`   `-----`   -----`    `-----`   `-` --` 
                                                     
    
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  • 24. Commercial Advertising

    Find an example of a commercial advertisement and analyze its logic. (See Example 5.)

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      ____      ______     _____    _____             
     |  _ \\   /_   _//   / ___//  |  ___||   ____    
     | |_| ||   -| ||-    \___ \\  | ||__    |    \\  
     | .  //    _| ||_    /    //  | ||__    | [] ||  
     |_|\_\\   /_____//  /____//   |_____||  |  __//  
     `-` --`   `-----`  `-----`    `-----`   |_|`-`   
                                             `-`      
    
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